- IN THIS SECTION
- Aviation Safety Programs
- SMS Rules and Requirements
- Our Approach to Safety Management Systems
- Safety Culture Assessment (SCA)
- Safety Gap Analysis
- Safety Management System (SMS) Manual
- Safety and Hazard Reporting
- Virtual Safety Office and Safety Analyst Mentor (VSO SAM)
- Human Error Management
- Cabin and Passenger Safety
Aviation Safety Programs
Aviation safety programs have traditionally been structured around reactive analysis and investigations of mishaps and events. Today's extremely low accident rate necessitates a proactive approach to improving the level of aviation safety. Decreasing resources are forcing every organization to take a fresh look at strategies that bring safety efforts into the business framework of aviation operations. The proactive safety approach to managing safety is a systematic and comprehensive process for addressing safety risks and it integrates the management of operations and technical systems with financial and human resources. Otherwise known as a Safety Management System (SMS) its principles go right to the core of identifying and mitigating latent system errors within your business and operating processes.
SMS Rules and Requirements
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) via Annex 6 (Commercial Air Transport) and Annex 14 (Aerodromes) require that member States establish a State safety program to achieve an acceptable level of safety in civil aviation. The framework for the implementation and maintenance of a State safety program is contained in the Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859).
To comply with ICAO Annex 6 and 14 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is in the process of publishing SMS rules for both Part 121 Air Carriers and Part 139 Airports.
Part 121 Air Carrier SMS
The SMS Proposed Rule for Part 121 Air Carriers requires each certificate holder operating under 14 CFR part 121 to develop and implement a safety management system (SMS) to improve the safety of their aviation related activities.
Part 139 Airport SMS
The SMS Proposed Rule for Part 139 Airports proposes that Class I airports will be required to develop a SMS implementation plan within six months and implement SMS within 18 months after the final rule is published. The remaining Class II, III, and IV airports would be required to develop a SMS implementation plan within nine months and implement within 24 months after the final rule is published. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will review and approve the SMS implementation plans. Learn more about JDA's Airport SMS implementation program.
Our Approach to SMS
Our approach ensures successful completion of the all requirements for developing and implementing an SMS specific for your organization and is comprised of three simultaneous activities.
- SMS Implementation Support - We use our extensive SMS expertise, training, and materials to analyze your current safety program, risk mitigation policies and procedures against the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and FAA guidelines with a Safety Gap Analysis (SGA). Our SMS team will also complete a Safety Cultural Assessment (SCA) of employees and staff, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data to help establish a baseline of your current safety culture. The results of the SGA and SCA will indentify strengths, shortfalls, and opportunities for implementing a robust SMS. Using the data from the SGA and SCA we will work collaboratively with your team to address all the SMS shortfalls and develop the necessary policies, procedures, and programs stipulated for operators.
- Compiling SMS Manual - With input from your staff we will write the SMS Manual using our SMS Manual Template that follows the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) SMS Manual content model.
- Launching and integrating an SMS reporting and management application - From the onset of the project we use SMS Pro™ a web-based SMS hazard reporting and internet portal. The hosted application and portal is already operational and being used by numerous aviation organizations worldwide. The solution enables anonymous safety report reporting, document control and management as well as all other FAA and ICAO SMS Components.
If you have limited staff and resources, JDA can provide Virtual Safety Office (VSO) and Safety Analyst Mentor (SAM) support to complement your staff at a fraction of the cost of adding new headcount.
The result will be an SMS solution that meets all the ICAO and FAA requirements and regulations and:
- Saves you money by delivering a total SMS solution sooner.
- Enables you to be fully compliant with the pending SMS rule ahead of schedule.
- Improves safety by enabling SMS reporting for employees and staff sooner it will allow you to collect data, conduct risk management and implement mitigation strategies within a few months of starting the SMS project, preventing recurring safety events and saving resources and money.
- Your staff becomes familiar with the SMS reporting and management application from the onset of the SMS implementation and in turn becomes more confident and capable in the overall program.
- The SMS manual becomes a living document that is developed and updated throughout the process.
Safety Culture Assessment (SCA)
JDA developed a four-phase SCA methodology designed to improve safety culture via enhancements in human error principles, human performance limitations, communications, and the overall corporate work environment.
The SCA will deliver prevailing beliefs, attitudes and behaviors toward safety identifying:
- Existing safety concerns within the company,
- Perceptions that may exist toward the company's current safety posture
- Likely amount of resistance, if any, to planned operational change(s); and
- How best to build the "human" into a company's mission, vision, values & objectives.
Our four-phase SCA consists of:
- Employee Survey - Design, administer and analyze the results of an on-line employee survey that reveals prevailing attitudes and beliefs towards key safety-related issues.
- Employee Interviews - Conduct both group and one-on-one interviews with front-line personnel as well as with supervisors and management to gain an added qualitative perspective on the results of the employee survey.
- Report / Briefing - Provide a written report and a briefing on SCA results, including graphical data, analyses, observations, and opportunities for improvement.
- Strategic Planning Session - Facilitate an onsite follow-on session with management to help craft an action plan for addressing any identified issues.
Safety Gap Analysis
A Safety Gap Analysis (SGA) is used to determine current strengths and deficiencies with the operator's programs in place to conform to FAA System Safety and SMS guidelines.
The SGA is based on both the FAA and ICAO SMS Gap Analysis checklist to help facilitate the implementation of the SMS in accordance with the ICAO Annex 6 Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and International Business Aviation Council (IS-BAO) SMS Guidelines.
Once the SGA is completed and fully documented, items identified as missing or deficient will form one basis of the SMS implementation plan. Each item will be assessed to determine how to create or modify policies, procedures and/or processes in order to implement a robust SMS.
Safety Management System (SMS) Manual
Safety, like all core business functions, requires documented procedures and programs. These programs ensure regulatory compliance and maximum standardization, efficiency, and productivity.
An SMS integrates safety-related policies, processes and procedures to achieve safety assurance through the collection and analysis of safety data, mitigating risk, and promoting a vibrant safety culture. This is achieved in part through an SMS Manual that documents the policies, procedures and responsibilities.
An SMS manual should be organized by the four SMS "pillars" or components: Safety Policy, Safety Risk Management, Safety Assurance, and Safety Promotion.
As a MITRE Aviation Institute licensed SMS training organization JDA is qualified to provide SMS manuals, SMS implementation assistance, and training support for air carrier operators, corporate flight departments, airports, air traffic control providers, maintenance repair organizations, and aviation authorities. If you are in the aviation industry, JDA has the expertise to help you develop a customized SMS manual that fits your organization.
Safety and Hazard Reporting Application
A quality SMS requires an easy to use, accessible, low cost and reliable reporting and management system for collecting safety event data and managing your SMS. Using a web-based and hosted SMS software application makes it easier for your staff and eliminates the associated burden that network solutions often create. The SMS application should enable you to:
- Collect, track and report on all safety events from all your employees regardless of their location through one centralized web-based portal.
- Log incidents across multiple departments or locations and gain a 360-degree view into your organization's safety performance with real-time reports and Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards.
- Execute a proactive and reactive approach to your safety program and easily identify, analyze and prioritize potential safety hazards and risks to avoid unnecessary incidents and expenses.
JDA's SMS experts can help you pick the right SMS application and reporting solution to meet your requirements and budget.
Virtual Safety Office and Safety Analyst Mentor (VSO SAM)
Any operator that has or intends to implement an SMS but does not have the infrastructure or resources for collecting safety event data, conducting risk analysis and managing SMS components can have the same capability as larger organizations by using our SMS Internet portal operated by a SAM. The VSO enables the operator to take advantage of all the features and capabilities of the SMS Application for a low monthly subscription fee. The VSO will be managed by a dedicated JDA Safety Analyst Mentor as part of the VSO subscription and performs the following functions:
- SMS Application administration
- Hazard /Safety event identification, analysis, tracking and assignment
- Trend analysis
- Assist with risk analysis
- Create reports
- Client coaching, training and mentoring
- Track and manage action item assignments
- Update stored manuals, documents, policies and procedures as directed by client
Human Error Management
People are the most flexible, adaptable and valuable part of the aviation system but they are also the most vulnerable. As a result three out of every four accidents are caused by human error. Human Error may indicate where a breakdown occurs, but it provides no reason as to why.
JDA focuses on uncovering why! Our human error management experts work toward three goals.
- Minimize occurrence of errors through competence, design controls, and proper procedures.
- Reduce the consequences of errors that do occur.
- Ensure that human error management is a key component of your SMS.
We examine the stress points that commonly trigger a breakdown in performance:
- Design of displays and controls
- Comprehension of written instruction
- Manuals and procedures
- System procedures
JDA can help your company in four areas:
- Plan, review, prioritize, coordinate, generate and update human error management programs.
- Develop and institutionalize procedures that systematically incorporate human error considerations.
- Establish and maintain the organizational infrastructure needed to provide human error management expertise to company programs.
- Through our proprietary safety culture and safety climate assessment process, JDA ensures that your organization will be base lined for a SMS implementation.
Cabin and Passenger Safety
Cabin and Passenger Safety encompasses all the functions provided by the cabin crew that pertain to crew and passenger safety in the cabin including passenger boarding and deplaning.
JDA has cabin safety experts that provide safety assessments, flight attendant manuals, training, cabin safety investigation guidelines and passenger briefing cards.
JDA was contracted to conduct an independent safety review and analysis pertaining to passenger and flight crew head injuries that occur on the main cabin entryway of regional airplanes due to the reduction in height of the entryway.
From January to March of 2012, JDA in cooperation with the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM) and the Association of Flight Attendants (AFA), conducted a survey to determine the extent, if any, of passenger and crew head injuries on airplanes used by regional air carriers. The survey findings, analysis and recommendations are available in the Regional Airline Passenger Head Injury Report. Also available is the IAM letter endorsing the report.
From the Blog
- Flight Design’s C4’s EASA Part 23 certification under surrogate new criteria and process might provide precedent for similar US treatment
August 1, 2014
- FUN FRIDAY: Beauty in Airport Design Patterns
August 1, 2014
- Comments and Commentary on UAS are interesting, insightful and controversial
July 31, 2014
JDA Aviation Technology Solutions
4720 Montgomery Lane
Bethesda, MD 20814
Toll Free: 1-877-JDA-AERO (877-532-2376)